Chocolate, one of the most popular foods in the world, has a history as rich as its flavor. Chocolate comes from the beans of the cacao tree, a plant that has grown in the Americas for at least 4,000 years. As long ago as the twelfth century, Indian families drank chocolate at marriages and other ceremonies. However, chocolate was not known in Europe until 1528, when the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés brought it to Spain.
Drinking chocolate soon became popular in Spain and quickly spread to the rest of Europe. Three hundred years later, a scientist in Holland learned how to make chocolate into candy. As the years passed, people in countries such as Belgium, Switzerland, and England began to make many kinds of chocolate candy. Today the making of chocolate is a multi-billion dollar industry.
There are many reasons why chocolate is so popular. People like its rich, delicious flavor. Some people think that chocolate is even better when combined with other ingredients, such as fruit and nuts. Also, candy makers can make chocolate into decorative shapes, from flowers and hearts to animals, and even to huge statues that weigh as much as 220 pounds (100 kg).
In addition, eating chocolate has helpful physical effects. The sugar and fat in chocolate give people quick energy. This is why mountain climbers often carry chocolate with them. For this same reason, people like to have a candy bar when they're feeling tired.
Eating chocolate has mental effects, too. Many people crave chocolate in times of stress or emotional upset. Some psychologists explain that people associate chocolate with the happy times of their childhoods. The taste of chocolate reminds them of the food and comfort they received from their mothers. However, physical scientists have developed another explanation. They say that one ingredient of chocolate, phenylethylamine, seems to lower stress.
There is no doubt that chocolate, with its unique physical and psychological effects and its unmatched flavor, is one of the world's favorite foods.
Which of the following would be an appropriate title for the reading text? (1 point)
a. Mental Effects of Eating Chocolate
b. Physical Effects of Eating Chocolate
c. Chocolate: A World Favourite
2. In your words, answer the following questions using complete sentences. (3 points)
a. Where did chocolate come from?
Chocolate came from the Americas.
b. Who brought chocolate to Europe?
The Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés brought it to Spain.
c. What effect does chocolate have on the human body?
It gives people quick energy and lowers stress.
3. Find the following pronouns in the article and write the word(s) each one refers to.
a. its (line 1) chocolate
b. that (line 2) the cacao tree / a plant
c. it (line 6) chocolate
d. its (line 12) chocolate
e. that (line 16) statues
f. them (line 19) mountain climbers
g. they (line 20) people
h. their (line 23) people
i. they (line 24) people
4. Use the context to determine the meanings of the words. Write short definitions
or give synonyms below. (5 points)
a. ceremonies (line 4)
Traditional actions used at important religious or social events.
b. industry (line 11)
c. flavor (line 13)
d. combined (line 13)
e. ingredients (line 14)
Things that are used to make something.
f. physical (line 17)
Having to do with the body.
g. energy (line 18)
h. mental (line 21)
Having to do with the mind.
i. crave (line 21)
j. remind (line 24)
Make someone remember something.